- Tác phẩm: English Collocations in Use Advanced width Answer key
- Tác giả : Felicity O’Dell, Michael McCarthy
- Số trang: 194
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Using this book
What is a collocation?
Collocation means a natural combination of words; it refers to the way English words are closely
associated with each other. For example, pay and attention go together, as do commit and crime;
blond goes with hair and heavy with rain.
Why learn collocations?
You need to learn collocations because they will help you to speak and write English in a more
natural and accurate way. People will probably understand what you mean if you talk about making
a crime or say there was very hard rain this morning, but your language will sound unnatural and
might perhaps confuse. Did you mean that there was a lot of rain or perhaps that there was a
Learning collocations will also help you to increase your range of English vocabulary. For example,
you’ll find it easier to avoid words like very or nice or beautiful or get by choosing a word that fits the
context better and has a more precise meaning. This is particularly useful if you are taking a written
exam in English and want to make a good impression on the examiners. In advanced level exams,
marks are often specifically awarded for the appropriate handling of collocations.
At an advanced level an appreciation of collocation can also be helpful in terms of appreciating
other writers’ use of language. Skilled users of the language may choose to create effects by varying
the normal patterns of collocation, with the aim of either startling or amusing their audience. This
technique is particularly popular with poets, journalists and advertisers. From an appreciation of
the way in which creative writers play with language, you may then even want to move on to use
words in more original ways yourself. You are more likely to be able to do this effectively if you have
assimilated the standard patterns of language use presented in this book.
How were the collocations in this book selected?
The collocations presented in this book were mainly selected from those identified as significant by
the CANCODE corpus of spoken English, developed at the University of Nottingham in association
with Cambridge University Press, and the Cambridge International Corpus of written and spoken
English (now known as the Cambridge English Corpus). We also made extensive use of the
Cambridge Learner Corpus, a corpus of student language which showed us what kind of collocation
errors learners tend to make.
These corpora show that there are many thousands of collocations in English. So how could we
select which ones would be most useful for you to work on in this book?
Firstly, of course, we wanted to choose ones that you might want to use in your own written and
spoken English. So, in the unit Health and medicine we include, for example, shake off a cold and
respond well to treatment but not grumbling appendix, which is a strong collocation, but one
which – we hope – most of you will not feel the need for.
Secondly, we decided it would be most useful for you if we focused on those collocations which are
not immediately obvious. A pretty girl, a modern car or to buy a ticket are all collocations, but
they are combinations which you can easily understand and produce yourself without any problems.
So we deal here with less obvious word combinations, for instance, flatly contradict (not strongly
contradict) and bitter enemies (not serious enemies).
Some of you may have already used our English Collocations in Use targeted at intermediate learners.
In general, we have tried to avoid focusing on collocations that we dealt with in that book. An
exception is with collocations that the Cambridge Learner Corpus highlighted as causing frequent
problems for students, even in advanced level exams. We felt that it would be useful to draw
attention to such collocations again, even if we had dealt with them previously.
Idioms can be seen as one type of collocation. We deal with them separately in English Idioms in Use,
and so do not focus on them here.
How is the book organised?
The book has 60 two-page units. The left -hand page presents the collocations that are focused on in
the unit. You will usually find examples of collocations in typical contexts with, where appropriate,
any special notes about their meaning and their usage. The right-hand page checks that you have
understood the information on the left -hand page by giving you a series of exercises that practise the
material just presented.
The units are organised into diff erent sections. First we start with important information relating
to learning about collocations in general. Then there is a section focusing on diff erent types of
collocation. The rest of the book deals with collocations that relate to particular topics such as
Student life or Film and book reviews, concepts such as Sound or Diff iculty and functions such as
Cause and eff ect or Comparing and contrasting.
The book has a key to all the exercises and an index which lists all the collocations we deal with, and
indicates the units where they can be found.
How should I use this book?
it is strongly recommended that you work through the six introductory units first, so that you
become familiar with the nature of collocations and with how best to study them. Aft er that, you
may work on the units in any order that suits you.
What else do I need in order to work with this book?
You need a notebook or file in which you can write down the collocations that you study in this book,
as well as any others that you come across elsewhere.
You also need to have access to a good dictionary. At this level we strongly recommend the
Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary as this gives exactly the kind of information that you need
to have about collocations. it does this both through the examples provided for each word entry
and through special collocations boxes or mini-panels. Your teacher, however, may also be able to
recommend other dictionaries that you will find useful.
Good modern learners’ dictionaries include example sentences which make a point of illustrating
each word’s most frequent collocations. Enormous databases of language, known as corpora, are
used to analyse speech and text to identify which words collocate most frequently. Look up the word
abject in the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary and you will find the entry below. Notice how
frequent collocations are used in the example sentences.
For more information about Cambridge dictionaries and to do online searches you could go to:
so, a study of collocation is highly recommended (Unit 7) if you want to impress people with your
natural and accurate use of language and to gain more marks (Unit 1) in English exams. Above all,
we hope both that this book gives you a thirst for knowledge (Unit 17) about English collocations
and also that you will thoroughly enjoy (Unit 7) working through the units in English Collocations in